The long-standing goal in physics has been to link general relativity with quantum theory and thus unify the forces of nature. Theories of quantum gravity, however, are plagued by weak theoretical foundations of quantum physics. This has allowed questionable hypotheses, such as the many-worlds interpretation, to gain more respect than they deserve. The huge gap between gravitational and quantum physics cannot leave other fields unaffected. The Standard Model (Big Bang) from its inception required correction after correction, while in geophysics and astrophysics important problems such as the ultimate causes of plate tectonics and the internal structure of black holes remain unresolved.
I suggest that the solution to these issues comes from general relativity – or, more accurately, its optical counterpart. It has long been known that the relative deflection of light as it passes a mass is mathematically equivalent to the refraction of light in an optical medium with a density gradient. This correlation is so subtle that it has been used to investigate phenomena such as gravitational lensing or, in microchip models, the optical spheres of black holes. This has led to suggestions that the optical analogue of space-time is in fact a real physical medium and that it can explain gravity.
How can optical spacetime bring general relativity, quantum physics, and cosmology into a coherent whole? In quantum gravity, the hypothetical particle exchanged between masses is the graviton. Supposing the existence of gravitons, the currents of gravitons exchanged between the masses of the observable universe would immediately form a cosmic medium. To make this optical medium simply requires that the gravitons share at least some properties with the photons, or virtual photons. The graviton could then serve as a medium and message in gravity and quantum physics.
The particles will essentially be reprocessing centers for gravitons, combining multiple streams of graphitons from distant sources into coherently arranged outgoing streams. Gravitons carry information about the particles they originated from, such as their velocity, polarization, and spin. To be consistent with general relativity, the energy within the graviton stream connecting two particles must be equal to the particles’ mutual gravitational potential energy.
The stage is now set for light gravity. All waves, including photons and other gravitons, refract in this spacetime. Applying Abraham’s interpretation of optical momentum, photons and gravitons transfer energy and momentum to the spacetime sheaths associated with each mass of the visible universe. The cosmological index of space-time refraction can be calculated using optomechanical measurement and then used to find the loss rate. It turns out that all waves, including gravitons, partially lose energy and momentum at the rate specified by the Hubble constant, h0or about 2 x 10– 18 second-1. This allows us to estimate the material’s absorption coefficient of the graviton. From that, the Newtonian force and the correct value of the gravitational constant J Then it can be derived.
The basic process is illustrated in Figure 1. Two graviton g1 And the g2 From distant sources (blue arrows) pass two local particles A and B (red balls), each surrounded by density gradients of spacetime (yellow circles). graviton g1 A passes first and transfers momentum to the space-time envelope around A, causing A to be pushed towards B, so it is weaker when B passes and therefore will transfer less momentum to B compared to A. Graviton g2 On the contrary, it transfers more momentum to B than to A. The net result is that A and B are pushed together in gravity (large white arrows).
Light gravity can profoundly alter geophysics and astrophysics. In Figure 1, gravitons are also directly exchanged between A and B (grey bar). If A and B are relatively close to each other, these gravitons are coherently superimposed on the local spacetime structure comprising A and B and thus do not cause a repulsive force. However, like all waves, it loses its energy by refraction in the cosmic medium. This leads to a small repulsion force from Hubble, Fh (small white arrows). For two atoms, this force is negligible compared to the pulses received from countless distant gravitons, so gravity easily trumps it.
However, in dense objects such as planets, stars, and black holes, the Hubble forces become important, as these objects have significant internal gravitational potential energy, yo. So they have an intrinsic Hubble luminosity, given by Theh = –oh0. I have proposed that deep mantle plumes driven by this energy carry high-density material from the core-mantle boundary to the upper mantle, where it crystallizes at lower densities. This could lead to upper mantle expansion, mountain building and a small annual increase in Earth’s radius, Chinese geophysicists report.
In ultra-dense stars, such as white dwarfs and neutron stars, the Hubble luminosity appears to closely match its polymetric luminosity, and thus would supersede the diverse and mysterious heating mechanisms that have been proposed for these objects. As for black holes, my preliminary work indicates that these essentially function as discrete micro-universes that have their own Hubble constant, which is much larger than h0. It appears that the energy released inside black holes by Hubble’s luminosity is quite enough to prevent them from collapsing into a singular state.
Space-time is expanding, but the universe is not expanding
In cosmology, linking the Hubble constant to optical gravity would supplant the idea of the universe exploding from a primordial particle. Instead, the continuous reprocessing of the old photons and gravitons carried toward the red by the particles into newer, more energetic ones allows for an ever-moving universe, in which all physical entities are constantly being recycled.
But wait. Does time dilation occur in Type 1A supernovae? prove That spacetime is expanding? Indeed, it does, but in optical gravity, it happens because gravitons that consist of an individual beam of spacetime are steadily redshifted to longer wavelengths. The space-time beam will expand accordingly, and thus the set of photons embedded within it will also expand, resulting in the observed time dilation.
Matthew R. Edwards, Optical Gravitational in Graviton Spacetime, Optic (2022). DOI: 10.1016 / j.ijleo.2022.169059
Matthew Edwards worked for many years at the University of Toronto Library. It researches diverse theoretical topics, including the origins of life, gravitational physics, geophysics and cosmology. He has edited Pushing Gravity: New Perspectives on Le Sage’s Theory of Gravitation.
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