An unwrapped champagne bottle produces supersonic shock waves

An unwrapped champagne bottle produces supersonic shock waves

Time sequence detailing a cork expelled from the neck of a champagne bottle stored at 20°C captured by high-speed imaging. Credit: Gerard Leger-Bellier

The opening of a champagne bottle usually marks the beginning of a festive celebration. After a pleasant cork popping sound, bubbles of bubbles shoot into the air, and finally, there is a pleasant tingling on the tongue.

But there’s a lot more that comes out of pop music than the senses see, according to researchers in France and India. in fluid physicsComputational simulations of fluid dynamics reveal the formation, evolution, and dissipation of shock wave patterns as the carbon dioxide mixture shoots through the bottleneck in the first millisecond after the cork pops.

The results could provide insight into the complex and transient behavior of supersonic flow in applications ranging from missile launchers, ballistic missiles and wind turbines to the manufacture of electronics and underwater vehicles. Simulation is based on Experimental research In 2019 he demonstrated, for the first time, the formation of shock waves while cracking a cork.

Co-author Robert George, from the University of Rennes 1, said, “We wanted to better describe the unexpected phenomenon of supersonic flow that occurs while opening a champagne bottle, and we hope that our simulations will provide some interesting clues to the researchers, and they may consider a typical champagne bottle. As a small laboratory.”

In the initial decoding stage, the . file gas mixture It is partially blocked by the cork, preventing the champagne emitted from reaching The speed of sound. But as the cork shoots off, the gas mixture escapes radially at supersonic speed, balancing its pressure through a series of normal and oblique shock waves.

The waves combine to form shocking diamonds, which are ring patterns commonly seen in rocket exhaust plumes. The consistency of the bottle causes a supersonic expansion in the shape of a crown. Eventually, the pressure becomes too low to maintain a proper nozzle the pressure ratio for Speed ​​supersonic in the bottleneck and corkedge.

“Our paper unveils unexpected and beautiful flow patterns hidden right under our noses every time a bottle of champagne is opened,” said co-author Gerard Leger-Beller, from the University of Reims-Champaign-Ardennes. “Who could have imagined the complex and aesthetic phenomena hidden behind such a common situation that any of us are going through?”

The researchers plan to explore other parameters, such as temperature, volume and bottle neck diameter, along with the physical and chemical processes that accompany opening a champagne bottle. For example, they are interested in how the supersonic flow is affected by the formation of ice particles caused by the sharp drop in temperature as the sizzling exits from bottle.


Decomposing champagne produces jets of supersonic freezing carbon dioxide


more information:
Abdul-Samad Benidar et al., Fluid-dynamic computer simulation of a supersonic flow of carbon dioxide during the popping of a champagne cork, fluid physics (2022). doi: 10.1063/5.0089774

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