Get ready for a new way to see the universe

L2 Flyby Webb Telescope

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the next of NASA’s major observatories. It follows the line of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. JWST combines the qualities of two of its predecessors, the observation in infrared light, such as the Spitzer, and the high-resolution, such as the Hubble. Credit: NASA, SkyWorks Digital, Northrop Grumman, STScI

NASA is scheduled to release the first images taken by the James Webb Space Telescope on July 12, 2022. They’ll mark the beginning of the next era in astronomy as Webb – the largest space telescope ever built – begins collecting scientific data that will help answer questions about the earliest moments of the universe and allow astronomers to study exoplanets in greater detail than ever before. But it has taken nearly eight months of travel, setup, testing, and calibration to make sure this most valuable of telescopes is ready for prime time. Marcia Rieke, an astronomer at the University of Arizona and the scientist in charge of one of Webb’s four cameras, explains what she and her colleagues have been doing to get this telescope up and running.

1. What has happened since the telescope was launched?

After the successful launch of the James Webb Space Telescope on December 25, 2021, the team began the long process of moving the telescope to its final orbital location, opening the telescope and – as everything cooled – calibrating the cameras and sensors on board.

The launch was as smooth as a missile launch can happen. One of the first things my NASA colleagues noticed was that the telescope had more fuel left on board than expected for future adjustments to its orbit. This will allow Webb to operate much longer than the mission’s initial goal of 10 years.

The first task during Webb’s month-long journey to his final position in orbit was to open the telescope. This proceeded without any hitches, starting with the deployment of the white hinge of the sun shield that helps cool the telescope, followed by the alignment of the mirrors and the operation of the sensors.

Once the sun shield was opened, our team began monitoring the temperatures of the four cameras and spectrometers on board, waiting for them to reach temperatures low enough so that we could begin testing each of the 17 different modes in which the devices could operate.

Nircam

NIRCam, shown here, will measure infrared light from distant and very old galaxies. It was the first tool that came online and helped align the mirror’s 18 segments. Credit: NASA/Kris Jenn

2. What did you test first?

The cameras on Webb cooled just as the engineers had expected, and the first instrument the team turned on was the near-infrared camera — or NIRCam. NIRCam is designed to study the faint infrared light produced by the oldest stars or galaxies in the universe. But before it could do that, NIRCam had to help align 18 individual segments of a Web mirror.

Once the NIRCam cooled to 280 degrees Fahrenheit, it was cold enough to begin detecting light reflected off the Webb mirror clips and producing the telescope’s first images. The NIRCam team was ecstatic when the first scans arrived. We were in business!

These images showed that all parts of the mirror were pointing at a relatively small area of ​​the sky, and the alignment was much better than our planned worst-case scenario.

Webb’s precision-guidance sensor also came into play at this time. This sensor helps keep the telescope firmly pointed at the target – much like image stabilization in consumer digital cameras. Using the star HD84800 as a reference point, I helped my NIRCam teammates connect to align mirror segments until they were nearly perfect, far better than the minimum required for a successful mission.

3. What sensors came alive after that?

As the mirror alignment wrapped up on March 11, the near-infrared spectrometer – NIRSpec – and the near-infrared imager and slit spectrometer – NIRISS – finished cooling off and joined the party.

NIRSpec is designed to measure the strength of different wavelengths of light coming from a target. This information can reveal the composition and temperature of distant stars and galaxies. NIRSpec does this by looking at the target object through an aperture that blocks other light.

NIRSpec has multiple slots that allow it to look at 100 items at once. Team members began testing the position of the multiple targets, instructed the slots to open and close, and confirmed that the slots were responding correctly to commands. Future steps will measure exactly where the cracks are pointing and verify that multiple targets can be observed simultaneously.

NIRISS is a slit-free spectrometer that also splits light into different wavelengths, but is better at observing all objects in the field, not just those in slits. It has several modes, including two that are specifically designed to study exoplanets that are particularly close to their parent stars.

So far, device checks and calibrations have continued smoothly, and the results show that both NIRSpec and NIRISS will provide better data than engineers expected before launch.

Webb MIRI vs Spitzer Comparison Picture

The MIRI camera, image on the right, allows astronomers to see the dust clouds incredibly clearly compared to previous telescopes such as the Spitzer Space Telescope, which produced the image on the left. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech (left), NASA/ESA/CSA/STScI (right)

4. What was the last tool you run?

The last tool to boot on Webb was the mid-infrared instrument, or MIRI. MIRI is designed to capture images of distant or newly formed galaxies as well as small, faint objects such as asteroids. This sensor detects the longest wavelengths of Webb’s instruments and must be kept at 449 degrees Fahrenheit – just 11 degrees Fahrenheit higher[{” attribute=””>absolute zero. If it were any warmer, the detectors would pick up only the heat from the instrument itself, not the interesting objects out in space. MIRI has its own cooling system, which needed extra time to become fully operational before the instrument could be turned on.

Radio astronomers have found hints that there are galaxies completely hidden by dust and undetectable by telescopes like Hubble that captures wavelengths of light similar to those visible to the human eye. The extremely cold temperatures allow MIRI to be incredibly sensitive to light in the mid-infrared range which can pass through dust more easily. When this sensitivity is combined with Webb’s large mirror, it allows MIRI to penetrate these dust clouds and reveal the stars and structures in such galaxies for the first time.

5. What’s next for Webb?

As of June 15, 2022, all of Webb’s instruments are on and have taken their first images. Additionally, four imaging modes, three time series modes and three spectroscopic modes have been tested and certified, leaving just three to go.

On July 12, NASA plans to release a suite of teaser observations that illustrate Webb’s capabilities. These will show the beauty of Webb imagery and also give astronomers a real taste of the quality of data they will receive.

After July 12, the James Webb Space Telescope will start working full time on its science mission. The detailed schedule for the coming year hasn’t yet been released, but astronomers across the world are eagerly waiting to get the first data back from the most powerful space telescope ever built.

Written by Marcia Rieke, Regents Professor of Astronomy, University of Arizona.

This article was first published in The Conversation.The Conversation