Application of 2D holography to granular material

From black holes to sand: applying two-dimensionality to granular matter

Schematic representation of 2D. Gravity models live in (3+1) dimensions while effective field theories/amorphous solid simulation are in (2+1) dimensions. Credit: ITP

Researchers from the Institute of Theoretical Physics (ITP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) found that granular matter (such as sand) and some black hole models exhibit similar nonlinear effects. The bridge between the two is two-dimensional and holographic.

The study was published in science progress On 1 June.

3D dualism allows one to map unsolved physical problems to their higher dimensional gravitational counterparts and vice versa. The mapping between the different dimensions is similar to the holographic optical projection technique, hence the name.

Although the holographic duplication originated from string theory It was part of the search for a consistent theory of quantum gravity, and it has also been widely applied Quantum chromodynamicscondensed matter physics, and quantum information.

In this work, the idea of ​​three-dimensionality was extended to a tangible type of irregular solid – granular materials. Since the grains tend to have a microscopic size, thermal fluctuations and quantitative effects can be ignored.

In addition, the traditional elastic theory of ordered crystals is no longer applicable, due to the disordered nature of granular materials (eg, there is no periodic lattice structure for the spatial distribution of grains). Understanding the physical properties of granular matter, such as complex mechanical responses, remains a theoretical challenge.

Granular materials can resist deformations to a certain extent and maintain their structural integrity. However, when the deformation exceeds a certain limit, the material breaks, a phenomenon known as succumbing. In some cases, the shear can lead to stiffening of the granular system (i.e., an increase in the shear modulus), which appears as a nonlinear response to external deformation.

This study predicts the intrinsic relationships between the nonlinear elasticity, throughput and entropy of the granular material, based on the principle of three-dimensionality and effective field theory techniques. Computer simulations of granular models verify theoretical predictions.

This research not only expands the scope of application 3D dualitybut also reveals the potential relationship between black hole physics and amorphous matter, providing a new avenue for studying and understanding complex systems.

What is inside a black hole? The physicist uses quantum computing and machine learning to find the answer

more information:
Deng Pan et al, Nonlinear elasticity, productivity, and entropy in amorphous solids, science progress (2022). DOI: 10.1126 / sciadv.abm8028

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